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Africa is not a country

There are 54 states on the continent, yet the media insists on referring to it as one place. A new app identifies the culprits

Many public figures and journalists have no problem describing someone from Botswana and a person from Mauritania as “Africans”. They probably wouldn’t call them “Americans” if they were from Brazil and the United States, even though the distance between the two is the same – and the economic conditions as different.

You don’t have a film called Out of Asia and you rarely go to Oceania on holidays (instead you talk of vacations in Australia, New Zealand or another island). Yet for a continent of one billion people three times the size of the US, it’s no problem to call it by one single name – “Africa“! This is hugely detrimental to many countries. When a civil war starts in the Central African Republic (Africa!), it negatively impacts countries as far away as Senegal (Africa!) and Lesotho (Africa!). This has to change.

What can be measured can be changed. By measuring how many articles talk of “Africa” without mentioning a specific country, we show in the app Africa Isn’t A Country how widespread the prejudice against the continent actually is. And we give journalists a tool to measure their progress towards more sensible reporting.

Because “Europe” is used to describe the European Union and “America” is used as a synonym for the United States, the coverage of Africa can only be compared with that of Asia. See how the Guardian, for instance, uses “Africa” as an all-purpose word to describe anything from Tangiers to Cape Town. Comparing the mentions of the three biggest African economies with the three biggest Asian ones, we see how much less precise reporting of African countries remains:

Guardian journalist don’t use “Asia” when talking of Hyderabad or Shenzhen. They use “India” and “China”. But for Africa:

The methodology vastly understates the problem. If a piece talks at length of “African” leaders discussing “African” issues in “Tunisia”, it will not appear in the statistics above.

More interestingly, the sections suffering from this syndrome are not culture, fashion and travel, as one could think. Looking at the seven sections that contain more than half of all the articles mentioning only Africa, the ones most prone to treating Africa as a country are world news, Comment is free and Global development.

Most of the time, journalists are not to blame. The tweet from Bill Clinton, above, is as meaningless as announcing that he landed between Calgary and Buenos Aires. As a head of state, he must have noticed that Obasanjo and Mandela did not rule the same country, though. More recently, the German defence minister explained that “the situation in Africa is serious”. I hope that she sends the Bundeswehr to more precise locations.

The blame does not fall entirely on celebrities and politicians. Guardianistas produced some surprising pieces, notably one that informs us that Africa can feed itself. There, the name of the continent is mentioned 13 times but the reader will not know that South Africa, for instance, is a net food exporter (like 18 other African countries).

Methodology

See here the list of articles that contain the term “Africa” but no other African country name. See the same query for Asia. Unfortunately, The Guardian has a section called “Middle East and Africa” that produces a lot of false positives, such as articles about Syria that appear in the results because of the name of the section. To correct this, all articles containing the names of Middle Eastern countries have been excluded from the count, which decreases dramatically the count of articles for Egypt. The total count is also inflated because of multimedia pieces (an image displaying the names of specific countries will be included in the “mentioning only Africa” category if the title mentions only the continent).

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Botswana faces questions over licences for fracking companies in Kalahari

Botswana government accused of ignoring pollution risks to scarce water supplies in Central Kalahari Game Reserve

Botswana has been accused of sacrificing the Kalahari, one of the world’s most precious wildlife reserves, to commercial fracking while ignoring the concerns of environmentalists and communities who could lose access to scarce water.

Hydraulic fracturing, known as fracking, for the production of gas is the subject of fierce debate in America, Britain, South Africa and countries around the world, with green activists warning that it degrades land and pollutes air and water.

Yet for more than a decade, Botswana, lauded as one of Africa’s most stable democracies, has been quietly granting lucrative licences to international companies to carry out fracking in the fragile Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR).

Some observers believe this is the most likely reason for President Ian Khama’s government fighting court battles to prevent the Kalahari Bushmen, also known as the San, from returning to their ancestral land. The government denies this and says the prospecting under way should not be defined as fracking.

Keikabile Mogodu, an advocate for San rights, said: “We have heard nothing. We are in the dark. If fracking is done in the areas where people are, consultations should be done. The companies should talk to the people but nothing has been done. We are trying to follow it up with the ministry because fracking is dangerous and is going to destroy the balance of the ecosystem – it should be a debate in the media.”

The CKGR is the second biggest wildlife reserve in the world, spanning 52,800 sq km. Energy companies that have raced for a share in recent years include the Australian-based Tamboran Resources and Debswana, a joint venture between the government and the diamond company De Beers.

The Bushmen said they had no idea their areas had been earmarked for drilling until they were shown a map during the making of a new documentary film, The High Cost Of Cheap Gas, revealing that half the game reserve has been allocated to multinationals. Seranne Junner, a lawyer who successfully defended the Bushmen’s right to occupy their traditional lands within the CKGR, expressed surprise at the extent of land concessions.

“I personally do not know of any or much public awareness on this aspect within Botswana at least,” she said. “I know there’s quite a lot of public awareness relating to the fracking that’s ongoing or that is trying to be implemented in the Karoo area in South Africa but as for Botswana, I would be interested to know how many of our population on the ground is aware – and government departments themselves are aware – of the consequences of these ongoing activities.”

She warned: “These licences may have been granted without anybody realising the long-term consequences … Water is not a resource that is overly abundant in Botswana as a whole, more especially within an area such as the CKGR. I would say it’s going to be extremely far-reaching for a sector of our population, if not the whole country.”

The Kalahari’s ecosystem is at particular risk because it contains coal bed methane, which requires water to be pumped out of the ground. This increases the danger of pollution and lowering the water table, potentially by hundreds of feet, which could cost a community its access to water – already a scarce resource in Botswana.

Some 30,000-60,000 elephants range through the north of the country, the biggest population of elephants left in Africa, and they are dependent upon water drawn from the ground from boreholes. Ben Moeler, a farmer near Nata, expressed concern that the boreholes could become contaminated by gas prospecting.

“Here in this area these elephants bank on those boreholes,” he said. “From us throughout to Chobe it’ll be a huge, huge disaster for the area. I just hope it never happens in my life.”

The waste water pulled out of the coal seam during fracking is potentially lethal to humans and animals. In an interview before his death earlier this year, Randy Udall, an American energy analyst, said: “They call it produced water – you can just as easily call it poisoned water. It’s toxic as hell, it would kill you if you drank any quantity of it, it will kill birds, it will kill cattle. So this is poisonous stuff.”

One of the companies operating in Botswana revealed that environmental regulations are not being followed. Steve Boden, unconventional gas development manager of South African energy giant Sasol, said: “We weren’t required to do an environmental management plan for it but in our opinion it’s best practice that we do.”

The dewatering of a coal seam during fracking has the potential to lower the water table, Boden admitted. “It’s a dry, semi-arid environment and they [the local community] are quite reliant on that water, so we have to be cognisant of those things.”

Yet Sasol has significant ambitions in Botswana. “In terms of a coal bed methane commercial development on a large scale, you know you’re looking at thousands of gas wells. Obviously through the life of a project not all of those will be operating so you may have over, I don’t know, a 3,000 km area where you might be running 2,500 gas wells at any one time.”

Despite the scale of the plans, a lack of publicity and media scrutiny has enabled the government to forge ahead unchecked. Dr Benson Modie, who drafted the first official report on natural gas development in Botswana and oversaw the drilling of the first exploration wells, conceded: “There has always been that possibility that we are going to pollute the environment.”

Asked if the CKGR’s ecosystem, which has supported communities for centuries, is a price worth paying for natural gas from fracking, Modie replied: “If you have country like this and the population is growing and you have a government that has to make decisions for all people of that country, some decisions like that will be made.”

But the government, often hailed as a beacon of democracy in southern Africa, disputed the definition of fracking. Its spokesman, Jeff Ramsay, said: “There is currently no fracking in the CKGR or anywhere else in the country. Coal bed methane is being prospected in the country, though there are no current commercial operations. Still not clear whether commercially viable or not, though a number of companies have shown interest.”

He added: “Coal bed methane prospecting in the country is being carried out by drilling, not fracking. Environmental impact assessments and management plans are a legal requirement for all mining in our country.

“Any future proposal for a licence for commercial fracking in this country would certainly be subject to vigorous debate, whether in a game reserve or anywhere else.”

Drillers interviewed on site in Botswana specifically referred to their operations as “fracking” and vehicles and equipment typically used for fracking could be seen.

Richard Lee, communications manager at the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa, said: “This encapsulates everything that is wrong with natural resource extraction in southern Africa – the secrecy, the lack of consultation with affected communities, the weak regulatory systems, and the elite collusion between governments and companies at the expense of the people.

“The Batswana have the right to know about developments on this scale and to decide whether they are in their best interest. Instead, the authorities keep everyone in the dark, particularly the San, who now face another grave threat to their future from Botswana’s secret dash for gas.”

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The great escape: European migrants fleeing the recession

As the European economic crisis deepens, more and more people are leaving to seek a better life in emerging economies around the world. We speak to four who have moved abroad

For years Europeans have wrestled with the issue of immigration, from worries about changing national identity to integration and use of resources. And with Romanian and Bulgarian citizens eligible to work in the EU next year, the debate over whether – and how many – immigrants from struggling economies should be allowed to stay is as fraught as ever.

Yet something has changed. From Ireland to Greece, young Europeans are now the ones desperately seeking exit strategies from economies in free fall. Meanwhile, politicians from emerging economies such as Brazil or countries with skills shortages such as Australia are busy publicising the opportunities they offer to old-world escapees. But what is life like for those who take up the opportunities to follow the money and move abroad for work?

UK to Botswana

The popular image of British expats used to be of retirees, soaking up the sun and the slower pace of life on the Spanish coast. Not any more, according to Home Office figures. Of the 4.7 million people who currently live outside the UK, 93% are of working age. Yet while the numbers leaving grew for the past decade, they peaked in 2008 at 427,000 and have now dropped to around 350,000 a year – possibly because in a recession people need to save up to move abroad. But the figures have been enough to spark mild panic and fears of a “brain drain”. Conservative MP Nick de Bois said this month that it was worrying that “our most economically active are leaving to apply their talents elsewhere“, saying many are heading to “growth economies” elsewhere in the world.

One of those lured by the siren call of countries with emerging economies is Shiraz Chakera, 34, who now works for Unicef in Gaborone, Botswana: “Until the ‘bonfire of the quangos’ I worked in the policy unity at the General Teaching Council For England. I had been there for 10 years when the decision was announced, a few months after the current government came into power to get rid of it. They said it was to cut costs, but I think it was more political than economic.

“I did not think about going abroad at first. But the opportunities in the UK were minimal – thanks to the economic crises and government policies, there wasn’t going to be much investment in education. Instead, it was the emerging economies – India, China and various African nations doing exciting things.

“I started applying for jobs in the UK but also abroad as my master’s was in international development and education. But because about a dozen major education organisations were going under, so many people were applying for each role in the UK. For four months I looked every day, but I wasn’t getting very far. I had a couple of interviews, but most of the time I didn’t even get a reply.

“Then I was contacted by an organisation in India – the Akanksha Foundation. They run schools in partnership with the government to improve the quality of schooling in the slums. It was a great opportunity, but the salary was local so I knew I would have to use my savings. I had also just got engaged, so it was a hard decision. Luckily, my fiance is also interested in education and international development, and loved India, and I decided I should take it to get a foot in the door.

I flew out there in January 2011, and it was an amazing place to work. Mumbai and Pune, where the foundation is based, are exhilarating cities and it was a young, vibrant organisation. My wife flew out a month later, but by then I had got a call from Unicef for a job I had applied for back in October 2010 – this time in Botswana. I was really excited because it was an organisation I really wanted to work for and a job that would make a big difference.

“I didn’t know much about Botswana, although I had relatives who lived there in the 80s. I got the sense it was a sleepy country, sparsely populated, but well-off and with an emerging economy. If my wife had vetoed it, we wouldn’t have gone but she did her own research and decided she could get a job there too and settle in.

“When we arrived in May 2012 it was interesting. A lot of my family is in Kenya and Tanzania and I had travelled in west Africa, but Botswana was very different. It feels almost like midwest suburban America – very well developed, with wide roads and everyone driving 4x4s.

“Gaborone is a small city and after London, Mumbai and Pune, really felt it. There isn’t much going on. The expat community is also a much larger proportion of the city, not just westerners but lots of African expats too. It has been hard to get used to a social life that revolves round pool parties and barbecues. We miss the street food in India, and the bars, restaurants and cafes in London.

“But having said that, Botswana is a lovely place and the people are great. It’s like a nicer South Africa without the terrible history. And Gaborone is a hugely welcoming city. We have made a small circle of good friends and got to travel round the country a little bit and go to Johannesburg for the occasional weekend away.

“My wife has also found work volunteering, and although my contract is up in April we would like to stay at least another year. I am setting up a national programme for children who have dropped out of school and one year isn’t enough. But London will always be home and I wish I could visit more often. My brother has just had a second child and Skype doesn’t cut it.

“I think we will return in five to 10 years, but exactly when depends on the economic and political situation. Hopefully by then there will be more investment in education and more political will to create a better system in the UK. If that doesn’t happen it will be difficult to come back.”

Homa Khaleeli

Greece to Australia

Since the economic crisis hit Greece, Australia has become the land of opportunity for those fleeing the money worries and social unrest in their homeland. Last year Australia was expecting a 65% increase in Greek migrants as the situation in Europe worsened – and with unemployment in the Mediterranean country at 26.8%, the highest recorded in the EU, this is likely only to increase.

Melbourne already has more Greek-speaking people than any city in the world apart from Athens and Thessaloniki, thanks to a community established after the second world war, when Greece was occupied by Nazi Germany. So many new immigrants have family links to the new world. Litsa Georgiou, 49, who migrated to Australia from Greece with her husband, Vlassis, and their five-year-old daughter Iliana, are no exception. But that hasn’t made the upheaval easier.

Litsa Georgiou: “We made the big move two years ago and it was exhausting, emotionally and physically. The crisis is entirely to blame. If I had my way I would still be living in Greece. I think about it every day and speak to friends there at least once a week. I miss the lifestyle, which is much more laidback than Australia – and of course the atmosphere and traditions. I don’t think there is one ugly place in Greece. I’ve found Australia hard even though I grew up here for a while.”

We had to live for a year with my parents, who also moved back before the crisis. Now we rent our own two-bedroom flat in Kingsgrove, a suburb in Sydney. Our daughter, Iliana, acclimatised very quickly. Kids adjust – it’s adults who take longer. We’re still homesick. Very often we play our DVDs, videos we took back in Greece, and we’ve got photos of our family and friends plastered all over the fridge.

We hear a lot about the country on the news as we watch [satellite] Greek TV and it’s not pretty, it’s really sad. When I look at the situation there I know I made the right move, especially where the little one is concerned. At least here we’re not struggling. We’re lucky, our rent is only A$300 a week and we’re able to pay our bills – we can make ends meet.

In lifestyle and culture Australia is very different to Greece. And it’s so regulated. You can’t get away with anything here! But opportunity-wise, in terms of work and Iliana’s future and education, it has a lot more to offer. It’s still the land of plenty even if the cost of living is unbelievably high.

Seven months ago I found work in a catering company. It’s very different from working in fashion and retail, which is what I’ve always done – but it pays well and it helps us cover day care and dance and swimming lessons for the little one. Our ideal, though, is to return to Greece and that will never leave us. Vlassis always says ‘when we’, not ‘if we’, go back to Greece. And every week I play the lottery, hoping that if we set ourselves the goal [of returning] we’ll get there one day.”

Vlassis Georgiou: “We had to start all over again moving here. Greece is my country but we just couldn’t survive there. The only reason we came here was the crisis and it annoys me that we couldn’t stay in the place that was our home. Australia was a culture shock in the beginning. But there was no future in Greece for our daughter – and all my friends, young people in their 20s and 30s, could barely make ends meet. By the time we left it was crazy. I saw dead dogs in the rubbish and it was clear they had been eaten. Later I heard that immigrants were eating them because they were so desperate. And then everyone knows someone who has taken their own life. I wasn’t an exception.

“I speak every other week with family and friends in Greece and all I hear is a lot of misery. Everyone wants to leave. Over the past year I know five people who have moved to Australia, all looking for work, and that’s just from Kiato [a town in the Gulf of Corinth] where we lived.

“In Greece a day’s wage is what you can earn in an hour in Australia. I’ve got a good job here working in unit maintenance, tending to buildings and gardens. In Greece you stress because you don’t have work. Here, it’s the work that stresses you, as I’m discovering having six men work under me in my team. There’s not much time to relax, but healthcare and schools are much better in Australia and it’s a country with opportunities.

“I miss Greece but I have to survive and although I know the only reason I came here was money, I also think Greece really needed to change. It can’t be compared with Australia. Over there, politicians are liars and traitors and the whole system is so corrupt. It may take 100 years to repair itself and even then I’m not sure. Every day I watch the Greek news and can’t believe how the situation goes from bad to worse. The Greeks are confused, they don’t know what to do. Seeing it from a distance I wouldn’t be surprised if they end up killing each other. There’ll be a social explosion for sure. We’re not living the best life but I can say that if you want to survive, Australia is the best country.”

Interviews by Helena Smith

Ireland to UAE

Ireland is no stranger to mass emigration but figures show that it is at a 25-year high – a record 87,000 people left the country in the first quarter of 2012. According to reports, the former Celtic Tiger now has the fourth-highest unemployment rate in Europe, with 14.6% of the population out of work.

Some commentators say emigration has saved Ireland from an even bleaker social and economic outlook, calling it a “social safety-valve” which has reduced unemployment and the stress on social services. The Economist also thinks it might be the reason why the country has avoided the social unrerst of neighbours such as Greece. But that is little comfort to emigrants such as Brendan Doris, 62, who feels he has been forced out of his home by the crisis.

“I moved to UAE out of desperation. I came at the end of September 2012 and I will be here for at least four years, if not longer. I’m an architect and self-employed, but I couldn’t get enough work in Ireland. All my clients kept putting projects on hold – there was potential work, but I can’t eat potential.

“My wife and I had liquidated every policy and fund we had – the kids’ college fund, our endowment policies – and we had no resources left. We had used all this and all our savings to keep paying our mortgage and I didn’t know what else to do. Social security is means tested and arbitary and they said they would give me €93 (£80) a month – how would a family survive on that?

“I had been resisting job offers abroad for about two years, but finally we had no more turns left and nothing to fall back on. I knew I couldn’t bring my family out because one of my daughters is autistic and it took years to get the system of support we have now, such as a specialist school. I have four children in total, aged 10-15, just the stage in life where they are making their own ties in society. So to bring them to an asphalt strip in the middle of the desert – not meaning to be derogatory about UAE, but that’s what it is – would be a wrench.

“Most of the people working here, their families go back home in the summer when the temperature gets to 38C but that presupposes somewhere to go to – we couldn’t rent out our house and then just move back when it suited us. Because of the European job crisis wages have dropped here too. So you are being closed in on from all sides.

“I met my wife in Malaysia when I was working on the international airpot there. We left there in 1999 – we were renovating a house to live there permanently, but the economy collapsed and there were no jobs so we decided to move back to Ireland. We thought we could make a go of it and for a time we did. I was MD of a small construction company, but the boom was false and when it stopped, the first to go were the small subcontractors.

“It has been difficult emotionally. I spend an hour and a half on Skype with the family every night, helping with their homework and watching them having their meal, so we have a virtual family evening – in some respects it’s more regular than when I was there. But this is very stressful and we still go through periods of doubt about whether we are doing the right thing. My wife is taking the kids around while trying to run her little Montessori school from home. Yesterday she missed one of our children’s plays, which was upsetting, because she had to take our other daughter to the doctor.

“I miss them. From when I finish work at six in the evening until six the next morning, it’s all I think about. Many nights I wake up and just look at the sky. I wouldn’t like to live here permanently because you can’t become a citizen and I am very attached to my own country. I am living in a hotel so I get all my laundry done and food cooked for me and everything is taken care of.

At work it’s an intense period – it’s the beginning of the project and they want everything two weeks ago. But I had my first social event last night with one of the engineers who has moved out from Canada. And I am trying to develop a life here – I need to start playing squash, to learn Arabic and even get round to learning the piano.”

Homa Khaleeli

Portugal to Mozambique

It is a bad time to be young, Portuguese and looking for work. The country’s youth unemployment rate has just hit 39.1%. A government minister caused a Facebook and Twitter outcry, not by telling jobseekers to “get on your bike”, but by encouraging them to emigrate. That is what Diogo Gomes did two years ago. He had just finished a degree in business and marketing management and wanted experience in the labour market. His best chance, he realised, lay overseas.

“The situation in Portugal is very delicate,” Gomes says. “In the past few years we have had very unprofessional leaders who have led the country into a huge deficit. The immobilised economy and the necessary austerity measures cut job creation. To move abroad is the only way to find a job and gain experience.”

Gomes, from Oporto, enrolled on a government programme placing trainees with Portuguese companies around the world and offering financial support. “Three weeks before leaving the country, I was informed that Maputo, Mozambique, would be my destiny for the following months.”

Now the 25-year-old, who is single, relishes this corner of southern Africa with its ocean views, elegant colonial-era architecture and celebrated seafood. “Actually, I consider myself a pretty lucky person. The Mozambican lifestyle is amazing and it’s very easy to adapt. There are plenty of things to do at night and you can have fun every day of the week.”

Gomes is the commercial and marketing manager of TD Hotels, a chain that has properties in Portugal as well as Mozambique and Angola. He is one of thousands of Portuguese deserting home with a sense that the grass is greener in these two former colonies, both of which are prospering as their one-time ruler declines. The trend has been described as a form of “reverse colonialism”.

“In terms of economic growth, these are two countries with very interesting developments that, allied with the fact of having the same language and similar culture, made this a natural happening,” Gomes says.

“Mozambique is enjoying a huge boom with coal and natural gas exploration and will stabilise this growth when this starts to materialise. Angola is a wealthy country in terms of oil and precious stones. However, these natural resources must be accompanied by services and a construction industry that still needs to progress. This means opportunities for foreign investment.”

The Portuguese occupation of Mozambique was another bitter chapter in African history; they left in haste, sabotaging vehicles and pouring concrete down drains and wells. But Gomes does not detect schadenfreude or resentment. “Mozambican people are very intelligent, they know that the colonial era is part of the past,” he reflects.

“They know that their beautiful country needs improvement and that we are here to make it happen faster. The civil war froze the economic and educational development and know-how is now needed to help it along.”

Meanwhile, Gomes misses the life he left behind – but not too much.

“Despite all the negative points, home is always home and Portugal still is a fantastic place to live. You only give the right value to certain things when you are far from them. However, I’m very happy where I am and twice a year is enough to visit my family and friends and go back to my roots.”

David Smith

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Southern African countries collaborate on plans for climate research centre

Windhoek-based facility to open in August after South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Zambia and Namibia commit to project

Five countries in southern Africa have joined forces to launch a research centre that will work on combating climate change in the region. South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Zambia and Namibia signed a declaration on Wednesday to base the initiative in the Namibian capital Windhoek.

The Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management (Sasscal) is intended to support cross-border research and land management.

Ministers from the five countries were joined by Annette Schavan, Germany’s science minister. Germany is providing €50m (£41m) in aid for the first four years.

Scientists based in Namibia estimate southern Africa will suffer double the average rise in global temperature because of its regional air circulation system. This could devastate agriculture and result in severe food and water shortages.

John Mutorwa, Namibia’s agriculture minister, said: “It is forecast that the region will be hard-hit by the effects of climate change, leading to the spread of deserts, water shortages, loss of fertile soil, biodiversity and agricultural output. Hundreds of thousands of people could be displaced, aggravating poverty and increasing the spread of vector-borne diseases and epidemics such as malaria, meningitis and cholera.

“Clearly, nations need to co-ordinate and communicate across political borders to jointly prepare for climate change.”

Namibia said the centre, due to open in August, will equip regional researchers and decision makers with scientific data and services to address future trends of global climate change, the vulnerability of societies and ecosystems, and the potential for improved natural resource management and services.

Mutorwa added: “Sasscal will focus on innovation and knowledge exchange for enhanced adaptive land use and sustainable economic development in southern Africa.”

Southern African countries will help with the creation of trans-boundary early warning systems for floods and drought, and regional climate change projections, the centre said.

A similar facility was recently set up among 10 west African countries, also supported and funded by Germany.

African countries have often lagged behind the rest of the world in cross-border co-operation, for example in intra-African trade. But last year Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe created a trans-frontier conservation area, allowing animals and people to roam freely across borders and establishing a framework to protect and share precious water resources.

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